by © Penny Steffen, 1999
Italian translation of this article by Isabella Orsini (Traduzone Italiano)

Many of you will know of the sighting in 1992 and 1993 of two more Centaurs, who were officially named Pholus and Nessus in 1996 and 1997 respectively. It is significant that these sightings also coincided with the Uranus/Neptune conjunction in Capricorn. Now that Uranus and Neptune are both firmly in Aquarius we will be experiencing the full impact of these new energies which, together with Chiron in Sagittarius, will help us to transcend outmoded beliefs/attitudes and uncover the truth of our origins, spearheading us towards a new consciousness. Because of the speed at which this transformation process is taking place, we may also see a mushrooming of new religious/sectarian cults, as people seek their own truth.

Since 1997 I have been observing the transits of these Centaurs to personal charts, and from early 1998 to mundane charts, and found that they have been significantly influencing peoples' lives and world events. Very little has been written so far about Pholus and Nessus, apart from Robert von Heeren's article on Pholus in The Mountain Astrologer of July 1996, his book on Pholus, with ephemeris, which I believe is still only available in German, his introductory article on Nessus in the British Astrological Association Journal (AA Journal) of Oct/Nov 1997, his Nessus ephemeris, a new 9 Centaur ephemeris1A, and Melanie Reinhart's excellent book "To the Edge and Beyond" (CPA press) on Chiron, Pholus and Nessus, including short ephemeris. For those who are not familiar with these Centaurs, I have briefly described these bodies below, without going into the mythology, which is nevertheless invaluable and can be found in Melanie Reinhart's book. I will then demonstrate how Pholus, and more particularly Nessus have been influencing mundane charts/world events in the last year.

Pholus orbit, like all the centaurs is very elliptical and takes 90 years for a full return. It crosses the orbit of Saturn on its way to perihelion and also crosses Neptune's to aphelion and correlates to the Saturn/Neptune planetary energies. The Saturn/Neptune mid-point is Pholus sensitive. Pholus transits are associated with "new frontier" situations - it is an instinctive impulsive energy that dissolves old barriers and one is challenged to jump into previously unchartered waters. Because the Pholus energy is so unfamiliar we might first experience chaos (Neptune) before things settle down and we find a structured outlet (Saturn) for this new way of being. In personal charts Pholus often relates to previously undeveloped creative/artistic talent or spiritual awakening as well acts of martyrdom and self-sacrifice. In the short time I have been observing mundane charts, I have found that Pholus transits offer an opportunity to transcend outmoded structures/belief systems, often necessitating the sacrifice of some cause or ideal for the benefit of the whole, with the aim of raising collective consciousness. Of course there is always a danger of misusing the energy if Saturn is not well integrated. At the time of writing (January 1999) Pholus is at 29 degrees Libra and Nessus at 28 degrees Sagittarius, almost in sextile to each other, this will occur again in September 1999, and in October Pholus enters Scorpio definitively. From a mundane point of view Pholus in Libra may have something to do with the need for compromise and diplomatic intervention in areas of conflict and the intervening chaos of collective uprising. Once it moves into Scorpio the dangers of the disposal of nuclear/waste/weapons may become an issue, as Pholus also relates to toxicity.

Nessus correlates to Saturn/Pluto energies, though its orbit is equally elliptical, taking 124 years. It crosses the orbits of Uranus and Neptune but does not actually touch the orbit of Saturn, just entering the inner sphere of Pluto's orbit. The mid-point of its orbit is exactly between Uranus and Neptune, and it was discovered between the first and second of their conjunctions. Melanie Reinhart tells us that as Nessus does not physically cross the orbits of Saturn or Pluto, " the Nessus process is probably one that does not mean to be enacted or put into material form, but rather that it acts as a transformer and linker of the energies of Saturn and Pluto" - my research to date supports this theory. She points out that Hercules plays a major role in all three of the Chiron, Pholus and Nessus myths, but it is only in the myth of Nessus that he actually dies himself. So if one accepts Hercules as being linked to the solar hero within, then the Nessus process asks that we raise our consciousness and transform the egocentric energy of the solar hero (Leo) by showing that we are enlightened beings, ready to co-operate with one another (Aquarius). It is no coincidence that last summer we entered a 2 year (approx) transit of the Leo/Aquarius Lunar nodes/eclipse cycle. Nessus is associated with all that is buried in the individual as well as the collective subconscious - the poisonous/shadow side we have suppressed, as well as man-made values/beliefs that are part of our ancestral inheritance and now need to be confronted and transformed. Rather than keeping the karmic wheel rolling by action and reaction, we are being asked to first reflect and consider the consequences of such a reaction. The Saturn/Pluto mid-point as well as the Taurus/Scorpio, 2nd/8th house axis and Venus/Pluto issues are all Nessus sensitive. Nessus energy positively used, gives us the Saturn/Pluto determination to succeed against all odds, as well as the ability to realign our values - negatively, our repressed sexual needs may overwhelm us, we may refuse to let go of past conditioning by seeking retribution, as well as use bribery and corruption as a way to amass wealth. The introduction of the Euro as a result of the authorities' mismanagement of financial resources and now as a challenge to the supremacy of the US Dollar, as well as the crumbling economies of many third world countries, are all indicative of the Nessus energy, showing that we need to realign our values. Individual and mundane transits are often accompanied by a burning sensation, burning with anger, envy, greed, passion/lust, physical burning, either of oneself, one's possessions or fires, burning of natural resources forests/land etc. Melanie Reinhart aptly refers to the Centaurs as " the emissaries of the underworld" - Pluto being Lord of the Underworld responsible for destruction as well as evolution - and Pluto usually accompanies Nessus transits. I have found that for mundane events, apart from the accompanying Pluto transit, the trigger for a Nessus transit is usually a Saturn/Pluto or a Venus/Pluto aspect, or a new/full Moon within 2 degrees of transiting Nessus. Nessus in Sagittarius has been highlighting the individual and collective shadow, power and corruption, in legal affairs, religion, foreign affairs, publishing, education etc. When it moves briefly into Capricorn from March to May 1999, we will get a glimpse of what will be in store once it moves definitely into that sign from November - high on the agenda will be corruption within the establishment - government/politics, church, and big business.

From 1998 when Neptune first sojourned into Aquarius, we have been experiencing and will continue to witness the full impact of the potent Pholus/Nessus energies, bringing compassion and spiritual awareness, religious fundamentalism, and a dissolution of Saturnian barriers asssociated with the Patriarchy, that have been blocking our evolution, as well as an escalation of the repressed shadow side of individual and collective consciousness. These issues will loom large until we are able to acknowledge the shadow, reconcile our differences and put the past behind us.

Last summer brought the burning down of churches and burning to death of two catholic boys in Northern Ireland, as well as the determination of the Orangemen to preserve their marches - on the UK Unification chart1, of which Northern Ireland is a part, Pluto was in the third house close to sextiling the Ascendant and trining the Descendant Axis opening the way for positive dialogue, whilst Nessus was transiting the third house inconjunct the UK Moon, showing the intense struggle of the British people to let go of past conditioning.

Pluto firmly in Ireland's first house2 and Nessus in Sagittarius also in the first house, first trined Mars, the North Node and then the Sun and Venus - all fourth house planets, whilst Pholus in Libra in the 10th house has opposed Mars (the North Node ruler), conjuncted the South Node in Libra, and opposed the Sun and Venus in Aries, demonstrating their willingness to put down their arms in the pursuit of peace, as well as some of the chaos and anarchy that ensued in the interim. Major progress could be made this year, though the forces of darkness will loom large, as Nessus will come within 18 seconds of conjuncting Ireland's Moon at 1 degree Capricorn in April 1999 (the time of the Saturn/Neptune square), making the exact conjunction in December, when there is a Saturn/Pluto inconjunct in the sky. Pholus, retrograding back and forth between 24 and 29 degrees Libra between March July will be helping to dissolve old attitudes when it once again conjuncts the south node and opposes the Sun and Venus for the last time in September, opening the way for a final resolution of the difficulties. The December 1999 planetary alignment in Ireland's chart is extremely intense, but could also be quite positive - in addition to Nessus conjuncting the Moon, Chiron will conjunct the Ascendant, while Uranus opposes Pluto, Neptune squares Mercury, and Jupiter, the ascendant ruler, moving direct will conjunct the North Node, Sun and Venus in January 2000. The last Saturn/Pluto inconjunct in March 2000, Ireland's approaching Pluto trine and the Saturn/Pluto opposition of 2001/2002 will all pave the way for major transformation.

Two examples of the positive use of Nessus energy, were the Good Friday Agreement of 10 April 1998 triggered by the Saturn/Pluto sesiquadrate of April 9th demonstrating the long drawn out discussions and determination of the leaders, to find a way forward. Pluto was then at 7 degrees Sagittarius exactly sextiling the UK ascendant (2) and trining the descendant, while Nessus was in the third house trining the UK Saturn. It was interesting to read that Bill Sheeran in his letter (Astrological Association Journal Nov/Dec 98) about Pat Harris' article (AA Journal Sep/Oct - 98), "Is a new Consciousness emerging in the collective of Northern Ireland", noted that the 1993 Saturn/Pluto square (correlating to Nessus) was a key year for the inevitable transformation of the structure of the UK. Bill Sheeran also referred to the February 16 1999 Solar eclipse at 27 degrees Aquarius and commented that "it sits on top of Mars in the Northern Ireland Chart.3" He mentions that "although one can look at it in a dark light, he has pencilled in a possible celestial signature of the real beginning of decommissioning and simultaneous demilitarisation" - the potent energy of the square to the February eclipse culminates with a new Moon on 15 May at 24 degrees Taurus, and the approaching exactitude of the first Saturn/Pluto inconjunct of 18 May 1999, indicating a determined struggle to move forward. The Saturn/Pluto opposition of 2001/2002 will occur when Nessus is at 9/ 10 degrees Capricorn, conjuncting the UK IC and Sun, most probably bringing more major transformation to the core of the nation.

The Pholus energy was also activated, by the Saturn/Neptune square, when it transited Ireland's 10th house, transiting Neptune having just conjuncted their Jupiter and squared transiting Saturn on the fifth house cusp. The crucial vote to sacrifice the struggle for an independent Ireland and leave the past behind was taken on 25 June 1998, the day of the exact Saturn/Neptune square. Anyone interested in the astrology of the UK and Ireland may care to observe whether key developments are accompanied by Venus/Pluto, Saturn/Pluto or Saturn/Neptune transits. The next Saturn Neptune square of 6th April 99 at 4 degrees Taurus/Aquarius, will be imbued with Pholus issues as transiting Saturn in the 5th house makes an inconjunct to Ireland's MC and transiting Neptune in the 2nd house trines the MC. The transiting north node at the time of the Saturn/Pluto inconjunct, will be at 17 degrees Leo, within a degree of the August 11 1999 Solar Eclipse.

A second recent positive Nessus event was the signing ceremony of The Middle East Peace Deal culminating in Washington on October 23 1998 - this historic event was accompanied by a Venus/Pluto parallel in the sky, as well as Saturn at 0 degrees Taurus, close to squaring Neptune at 29 degrees Capricorn, emphasising the Pholus willingness to take a leap in the dark for the sake of the future. On the Palestine Autonomy Chart4, Pholus at that time was at 23 degrees Libra, squaring Neptune, and semisextiling the Palestinian north Node and inconjunct the south node on the 4th/10th house axis. Pluto was applying to trine the ascendant and sextile the descendant and Nessus was also applying to inconjunct the South Node and semi-sextile the 4th house North Node as well as their 6th house Neptune. On the Israeli chart5 which has key Nessus issues to resolve having a Saturn/Pluto conjunction in the 10th house and Taurus/Scorpio lunar nodes, Pholus was on the Ascendant, while Nessus was applying to inconjunct the Israeli Sun. This event was also marked by Yasser Arafat making mention that he was speaking from his heart (a Nessus theme, as in the myth Nessus is killed by one of Hercules' poisoned arrows' which pierces his heart).

The other story of the year, the drive to impeach President Clinton, is loaded with Nessus issues - jealousy, lust, betrayal, revenge, power and control. Pluto has recently been transiting the US Descendant at 8 degrees Sagittarius6 if one uses the Gemini rising chart - returning to exactitude between June and October 1999 - while Nessus, also transiting the 7th house, will be making a semi-sextile to the US Pluto in Capricorn in the 9th house of legal and foreign affairs on and off for much of this year. The Saturn Pluto, Venus/Pluto energies aptly fit the Pilgrim fathers who colonised America - they were essentially puritans and dissidents, and whose beliefs and attitudes are doubtless deeply etched in the subconscious of many members of Congress. It is hardly surprising then, that the Nessus energy emerging from their subconscious, makes them feel duty bound to uphold these puritan beliefs and show who is still in charge by sending Bill Clinton to hell and back for his sexual transgressions, depicting the affair as a sin against the nation. President Clinton clearly abused his powers by satisfying his sexual fantasies, and then trying to dispose of Monica Lewinsky, as if she had passed her sell by date, but the whole issue has got out of hand because of the Republican refusal to let go of past conditioning. The chart for the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth Rock7, has transiting Pluto currently nearing the Ascendant at 10 degrees Sagittarius, and Nessus will be coming to conjunct the 1st house Sun at 0 degrees Capricorn during February and the first half of March. On the Chart for the First Congress8, the Lunar eclipses of last July and this January straddle the MC/IC axis and Nessus has been in the 2nd house of values squaring the 11th house Saturn, showing the difficulties the present day Congress is having in throwing off their ancestral inheritance. In addition, the chart set for the Federal Constitution 9 has a Saturn/Pluto conjunction in the first house close to the Ascendant. Pluto has been transiting the Constitution's Moon at 7 degrees Sagittarius and will be back again between July and September, while Nessus will come within 1 degree of conjuncting the North Node at 1 degree Capricorn between March and May and again towards the end of the year, to say nothing of the Uranus/Pluto transits that will be taking place at the same time. All this points to the struggle to overcome past limitations and the need to make the necessary changes that are more in keeping with the times, which could lead to major changes in the Constitution.

Only when the Republican Government realised they were losing the support of the electorate, after the decision to go ahead with the impeachment debate in the House of Representatives on 18 December 1998 was taken - with the New Moon at 26 degrees Sagittarius, conjunct transiting Nessus and the Galactic Centre - did the possibility of a fair trial emerge. The decision by President Clinton to attack Iraq on the eve of the same new Moon, whether as retribution or as a coincidence of the UN report being ready on that day, is equally descriptive of the Saturn/Pluto images of the sustained bombardment of Saddam Hussein's power bases. The New Moon at the time of the bombing, was conjunct Nessus on the MC of Saddam Hussein's solar return chart10 for 1998/9, and the Iraqi Chart11 was triggered by Nessus trining their Mars at 25 degrees Aries. The Lunar Eclipse of 31 January 1999 is conjunct the Iraqi Uranus/Mercury/Ascendant - the first activator of a lunar eclipse is usually felt six weeks before the event (or the nearest New/quarter or full moon to that date), and this one coincided with the New Moon at 26 degrees Sagittarius, conjunct Nessus and the Galactic Centre. When Nessus is within a couple of degrees of the galactic centre we can expect to feel the full potency of its energy, as it will be once again during the summer of 1999, specifically July to September. The Solar Eclipses of 11 August 1999 at 18 degrees Leo, and February 5th 2000 at 16 degrees Aquarius, will also set off the Iraqi Ascendant/Descendant Axis -so we must presume there is more to come

The individual charts of the Clintons, Monica Lewinsky and Kenneth Starr are also strewn with Nessus themes. Monica Lewinsky's Nessus A at 25 Gemini in the 9th house of legal affairs and publishing, conjunct's BillB , HillaryC and Kenneth Starr'sD Uranus - Uranus is conjunct the North Node for both Bill Clinton and Ken Starr, sits on Hillary Clinton's ascendant and is the ruler of the Clinton's composite descendant, showing what a disruptive effect she has had on their lives.

In President Clinton's chart Nessus is in the 8th house at 9 degrees Taurus, squaring Saturn, Mercury and Pluto and inconjuncting the 1st house Venus in Libra, ruler of his Ascendant. He also has a Venus/Pluto sextile. Hillary Clinton also has Nessus at 9 degrees Taurus in the 11th house opposing the Sun and Chiron in the 5th as well as a Venus Pluto square, a Saturn Pluto conjunction, and Taurus/Scorpio lunar nodes - her own humiliation and suffering over the Lewinsky affair may not have been appreciated, and until now, in true Saturn/Pluto style, she has stood by him. Bill and Hillary Clinton's composite chartE has a Saturn Pluto conjunction across the Leo Ascendant and Nessus in the 10th house conjunct a Scorpio MC, while Venus is conjunct Chiron on their Taurus IC. These aspects demonstrate their strength as a couple, their drive for success at any price and the envy/jealousy they attract from others.

Kenneth Starr has Nessus at 9 degrees Taurus in the 4th house conjunct the IC and widely conjunct his Taurus Moon, opposing his MC and making a T-square to his 7th house Pluto. The Nessus energy is deep within him, and being the son of a preacher, the puritan values he has probably inherited must make it hard for him to let go of his overriding need to exercise his power and serve justice in his own way.

Monica Lewinsky has Nessus in 25 Gemini in the 9th house of legal affairs/publishing conjunct Saturn, semisextiling 10th house Mercury, and sextiling 11th house Venus, ruler of the Ascendant - as well as a Saturn/ Pluto square - her Saturn/Pluto midpoint is 15 Leo which is within 4 degrees of this January's lunar eclipse, and will be triggered by the Solar Eclipse of August 1999. Bill and Hillary Clinton's Saturn/Pluto mid-point is 12 degrees Leo, which is being triggered by the Lunar eclipse of 31st January 1999 at 11 Leo - as well as, Bill, Hillary and Kenneth Starr' s Pluto.1

When President Clinton first admitted to oral sex with Monica Lewinsky on 17 August 1998, in the wake of the solar eclipse at 28 degrees Leo, conjuncting his Sun, there was a Venus/Pluto trine, indicative of Nessus. Congress decided to go ahead with the impeachment debate on 18 December 1998, when there was a New Moon conjunct Nessus, and on 22nd January, when President Clinton's lawyers have finished giving their deposition, there will be a Venus/Pluto quintile in the sky. The January 1999 Lunar eclipse and next August's solar eclipse, as well as the Solar eclipse of February 2000 will see all parties' (Clintons', Starr and Lewinsky's) Saturn/Pluto mid-points activated, so this saga may not be put to rest before then.

Pholus at 29 degrees Libra between January and early March 1999 will come close to conjuncting the Clintons' Chiron in Scorpio, so they will no doubt be feeling the pain of their wounds relating to sexuality very deeply. At the same , Nessus at 29 degrees Sagittarius/0 degrees Capricorn will sextile Chiron, showing their determination to confront and transform these wounds - these same transits will be repeated in October and November 1999, through there will be a few weeks gap between the Pholus and Nessus transits this time. So if rumours abound in October of a split in their marriage, it looks likely that they will find the strength once again to pull through. The Solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 conjuncts the Clintons' composite Ascendant, and the square to the eclipse on November 8th at 15 degrees Scorpio will coincide with Nessus making a sextile to their Chiron.

Pholus will reach Bill and Hillary Clinton's composite IC, in January, March and October 2000, and will go on to conjunct their 4th house Jupiter as they prepare to give up their tenure of residence at the White House - as Jupiter is part of a fixed T-square with the Saturn/Pluto/Ascendant conjunction as the apex, it will no doubt bring a joyous release from the strain of the ordeal they have been facing. Pholus on the IC is usually indicative of crumbling structures, uncertainty and chaos, sometimes connected with a move of home and a completely new way of life. In the Clintons' case these Pholus transits to the IC may reveal instability in their relationship as well as uncertainty and/or chaos in their domestic life. However, as the January 2000 Pholus transit will be accompanied by Nessus at 4/5 degrees Capricorn sextiling their IC and the October 2000 transit will also be followed closely by a Nessus sextile, it looks likely that they will once again make a determined effort to work things out.

All that said, President Clinton's current solar return chart for set for Washington DCF clearly demonstrates the Nessus issues he has been dealing with this year - he has Pluto on the Descendant making a trine to Venus in Leo in the 3rd house and a sesiquadrate to Saturn in Taurus in the 12th house - we must wait and see what surprises are in waiting when Uranus reaches 13 degrees Aquarius and conjuncts the President's return MC as well trining his return Ascendant, shortly before the solar eclipse of 16 February. The square to this eclipse on 15 May, followed by the Saturn/Pluto inconjunct at 9 degrees Taurus/Sagittarius will conjunct the Clintons' and Kenneth Starr's Nessus' as well as Monica Lewinsky's Moon, making this a highly sensitive time. Although President Clinton could be let off the hook by the Senate once these eclipses have passed, there may still be repercussions when the August 1999 and February 2000 Solar eclipses set off Monica Lewinsky's Saturn/Pluto midpoint and the Clinton's composite Ascendant/Descendant axis.

In this era of transition, as these new energies weave their way in and out of our lives, it may not always be easy to cope with the elements of destruction and renewal that we will be witnessing around us, but in many ways it will also be an exciting and progressive time. It is my feeling that these New Centaurs will be awakening a new level of spiritual awareness or Christ consciousness within us. The sign Sagittarius with the symbol of the archer resonates with the Centaurs, and with Pluto joined by Chiron in the sign of the archer, the gradual destruction of ideologies and belief systems held deep within the collective unconscious could be a wounding experience for many who have lived their lives by these doctrines.. The earth is also the esoteric ruler of Sagittarius, so we will probably become more aware of the extent to which we have damaged the earth and of the need to transform our relationship with nature. As astrologers, we may also need to be aware that all this expansion of consciousness associated with the Aquarian element air, could cause us to live too much in our heads, appearing remote and cut off from the real world, and that in order to understand the public's needs and serve them well at this key time, we will also need to invoke the Leo polarity by using our hearts as well as our heads.


1A available from: Robert von Heeren

1 Jan 01, 1801 00:00 AM LMT UK Union 1801, Westminster, England source: N. Campion "Book of World Horoscopes".

2 Apr 17, 1949, 11:00 PM GMT, Eire-3, Dublin, Ireland, 006W15;, 53N20, Source: N. Campion "Book of World Horoscopes".

3 December 7 1922, 3:38 PM GMT, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 54N35, 5W55 - Source: N. Campion "Book of World Horoscopes".

4 May 04, 1994, 08:55 AM GMT, Palestine Autonomy, Jerusalem, Israel, 035E14', 31N46' -Source: N. Campion, "Book of World Horoscopes".

5 May, 14, 1948, 04:00 PM EET, Tel Aviv, Israel, 034E46', 32N04' 00" - source: N. Campion "Book of World Horoscopes".

6 Jul 04, 1776, 02:17 AM LMT, USA-Gemini , Philadelphia, Pa, Zone +0:00, 075W10', 0039N57' Source: N. Campion, "Book of World Horoscopes".

7 Dec 21, 1620, 06:00 AM LMT, USA-Pilgrim Fathers, Plymouth, Pa, Zone 00:00, 070W30' 41N57'Source: N. Campion, "Book of World Horoscopes".

8 Sep 05, 1774, 10;00 am LMT, US Congress, Philadelphia, Pa, Zone: 0:00, 075W10, 39N57' , Source: N. Campion, "Book of World Horoscopes".

9 Dec 17, 1787, 04:00 PM LMT, USA-Federal Constitution, Philadelphia, Pa, Zone: 00:00 075W09', 39N57'

10 Saddam Hussein Natal - Apr 28 1837, 8:55 AM BAT, Tikrit, Iraq, Zone:-3:00, 34N36', 43E42 Source: Solar Fire

11 Jul 14, 1958, 04:00 GMT, Iraq-Republic, Baghdad, Iraq, Zone: 00:00, 044E25', 33N21', Source: N. Campion "Book of World Horoscopes"

A Monica Lewinsky, Jul 23, 1973, 12:21 PM PDT + 7:00, San Francisco, California, 37N46' 30" , 122W25' 06", Placidus - source: Jack Fertig quotes birth certificate from Hall of Records - The Mountain Astrologer Apr/May 1998)

B Bill Clinton, Aug 19, 1946, 8:51 AM CST, +6:00, Hope, Arkansas, 33N40' 93W25', Placidus - source: Birth time noted by his mother in a letter to Shelley Ackerman - The Mountain Astrologer, Apr/May 1998

C Hillary Clinton, Oct 26, 1947, 8:00 PM CST, +6:00 Chicago, Illinois, 41N51' , 87W39', Placidus - source: Rodden Astrodata 1, p.231 - The Mountain Astrologer, Apr/May 1998

D Kenneth Starr, Jul 21, 1946, 6:45 PM CST, +6:00, Vernon, Texas, 34N09, 99W15', Placidus - source: Birth certificate - The Mountain Astrologer, Apr/May 1998

E see B and C above

F based on B above